Disaster Preparedness and Response Planning灾害防备及应对计划

1. Ethnic Minority Health Project – Health needs assessment in remote, extreme poverty, disaster-prone, ethnic minority based communities in China
少数民族健康计划为中国偏远地域、极贫困、易受灾的少数民族地区进行健康需求评估

While we might not be able to reduce the frequency of natural disasters, enhancing preparedness is considered one of the best strategies to empower communities and mitigate its adverse impacts on human health. Measured globally, China has been the country most often struck by natural disaster. Its (non-Han) ethnic minority groups are disproportionately concentrated in disaster-prone areas or in rural settings with extreme climate conditions. According to literature, non-Han Chinese constitute 8.4% of China’s population and generally fare worse than the Han majority in terms of economic status. Public health research reviews indicate that there is limited understanding of the health status and outcomes among these ethnic minority populations in China.

虽然我们不能控制天灾的发生次数,但却深信灾害防备是最佳战略之一,能够有助社区减低灾害对人们健康带来的负面影响。中国几乎是全球最易受灾的国家,而中国的少数民族却不合比例地集中在天灾频发的地区,当地气候也颇为极端。根据文献所指,少数民族占全国人口的8.4%,一般较汉族的经济状况为差。公共卫生学研究回顾显示,我们对于中国少数民族的健康状况所知非常有限。
This project aims to achieve five objectives:

此项目旨在达到以下五个目的:

  • To empower extremely poor communities in rural and remote settings to prepare and mitigate the adverse impact of natural disasters;
    加强极贫困及偏远地区的应变能力,以预备及减轻天灾对人口的负面影响;
  • To adapt technical “know-how” developed in academic settings to concrete practice in the field, in order to enhance disaster preparedness in remote communities;
    将学术知识转移为实际行动,协助偏远地区防备灾害;
  • To increase global awareness of issues related to disaster impact and preparedness among remote communities in developing countries;
    加强全球了解发展中国家的天灾影响和防备;
  • To build up human resources to work in rural remote communities by offering practice and training; and
    提供实习和培训,确立人手在偏远地区工作; 以及
  • To document experiences to share with international communities.
    系统地将经验记录,与国际社会分享。

Ongoing and planned project implementation sites include the origin of Yangtze River, the Tibetan plains, the high plateau of the Yellow River, an island setting (Hainan), the Northeastern river region, and the Yunnan minority population. Each project implementation site lasts for up to 36 months, including three to four field visits. The main activity is a series of field-based community disaster preparedness campaigns. These campaigns target remote, rural, ethnic minority populations, and communities in extreme poverty in China where almost no knowledge or material resources are available for addressing the low level of disaster risk literacy. Health education programs are tailored to identify specific disaster preparedness solutions that are relevant and useful to resource-deficient communities. Technical and local community project partnerships are fostered to ensure the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of our programs. We recruit both students and professional volunteers to participate and support these projects.

目前展开项目的地点包括长江源头、西藏高原、黄土高原、海岛人口 (海南)、东北地区河流流域以及云南少数民族人口聚集地。预计在36个月的项目实施期间,工作人员将在每个地点进行三至四次地实地考察。项目内容主要包括实地灾害防备活动,主要针对中国的偏远、农村、少数民族和极贫困等地区, 当地几乎没有基本知识或资源,来教育处于低水平灾害风险素养的民众。推行健康教育计划期间,我们会与目标社区合作,找出在资源缺乏情况下切实可行的灾害防备方案。专业团队和当地项目伙伴将致力于确保项目符合成本效益,并可持续发展。我们招收学生和专业志愿人员参与支持本项目。

Project Duration 项目实施时间

6 Years (2009-2014)
六年 (2009-2014)

Funding 资金来源

This project is supported by The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) Global Health and Disaster Studies Research Development Fund, the School of Public Health and Primary Care, Public Health Humanitarian Initiative, the Public Health Development Fund, the Wu Zhi Qiao (Bridge to China) Foundation, and the CUHK Knowledge Transfer Fund.

此项目由香港中文大学全球卫生和灾害学研究发展基金、公共卫生及基层医疗学院公共卫生人道支持计划、公共卫生硕士发展基金、无止桥慈善基金及香港中文大学知识转化基金慷概支持。

2. Stakeholder interviews with international NGOs and government leaders on the mental health needs, current mental health policy in the organization, and the feasibility of training Psychological First Aid before aid workers’ deployment
国际非政府组织和政府领导利益相关者访谈,以了解当前的精神健康需求、机构现行精神健康政策,以及救援人员救灾前进行心理急救培训的可行性

Apart from the very real possibility of suffering psychologically in critical incidents, aid workers and first responders are usually responsible for offering emotional comfort to disaster victims. However, there is a lack of emergency preparedness and training for the task of offering psychosocial care to victims in commonly accepted disaster relief protocols.
前线紧急救援人员可能在目击重大创伤后受到心理打击外,还须振作安慰受灾者。然而,在一般的灾害救援蓝本中,甚少提及救援人员的紧急防备,以及缺乏向受灾者进行心理辅导的培训。

The main aims of the stakeholder interviews are, before deployment, to understand the mental health needs of aid workers and first responders, to understand the current policy of promoting mental health among aid workers, and to explore the feasibility of training in some endorsed interventions such as Psychological First Aid.
与利益相关者访谈的主要目的是为了在应用前了解救援人员和前线紧急救援人员的心理健康需求, 并了解当前推行的关于救援人员精神健康的政策, 以此来探求相关干预手段(比如心理急救)的训练方法。

Managerial and human resources personnel in international NGOs and government departments in the region will be invited to participate in one-hour, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. The interview questions are informed by previous literature and cover general views on, and experience with mental health needs among aid workers, the current mental health policy in the interviewee’s organization, use of mental health services before and after deployment, identifiable barriers to use of services, and the possibility of pre-deployment training in Psychological First Aid.
我们将透过邮寄函件及电邮的方式,邀请当地国际非政府组织和政府部门管理人员及代表进行访谈。访谈采用半结构式的问卷,并以面谈形式进行,时间大约为一小时。内容源自过往文献,涵盖救援人员对精神健康需求的一般见解和经验、机构的现行精神健康政策、救灾前后使用的精神健康服务、使用服务的潜在障碍、以及救灾前进行心理急救的可能性等问题。
This project aims to achieve three objectives:
此项目旨在达致以下三个目的:

  • To understand the mental health needs of aid workers and first responders, and the current policy of promoting mental health among aid workers;
    了解救援人员和前线紧急救援人员的精神健康需求,以及现行的精神健康政策;
  • To collect evidence to further development of mental health guidelines in organizations’ establishment of curriculum, training programs and policies for first responders.
    收集更多相关信息, 以助机构制定心理健康指引,为前线紧急救援人员确立课程、培训计划和政策。
  • To explore the feasibility of pre-deployment training in some endorsed interventions, including Psychological First Aid; and
    探讨进行认可干预的可行性,包括救灾前的心理急救;以及

Project Duration 项目实施时间

2 Years (2011-2012)
两年  (2011-2012)

Funding 资金来源

This project is supported by the CCOUC seed grant and The Chinese University of Hong Kong School of Public Health and Primary Care Student Research Grant.
此项目由CCOU 灾害与人道救援研究所种子基金以及香港中文大学公共卫生及基层医疗学院学生研究基金慷慨支持。

3. Urban disaster risk literacy and preparedness in a Chinese community
中国的城市灾害风险素养及防备

Disaster risk literacy refers to the ability to identify, understand, interpret, and communicate disaster risk-related information. Disaster preparedness, on the other hand, focuses on the ability and readiness to respond to emergency situations arising from natural disasters. Studies from many countries have demonstrated the potential impact of physical, mental, and psychological first- aid training on increasing disaster preparedness. Therefore, recognizing potential disaster risks and actual preparation for natural disasters may reduce the physical, psychological, and societal impact brought on by these unexpected natural phenomena.

灾害风险素养是指辨识、明白、解读和沟通灾害相关信息的能力。至于灾害防备,就是指应对自然灾害危急情况的能力和 准备性。此外,部份国家的研究更指出,理、精神和心理的急救训练可加强灾害的防备。因此,找出潜在的灾害风险, 加以防备,就可减少突如其来的天灾对生理、心理和社会的影响。
Despite the importance of understanding population disaster risk literacy and preparedness for policy development and administration, little is known about the level of disaster risk literacy in urban Chinese communities such as Hong Kong. To fill this knowledge gap, a telephone survey was conducted to achieve six objectives:

了解人群灾害风险素养和防备对政策制定和管理是非常重要的,但现有的研究对于中国城市地区(包括香港在内)的灾害风险素养水平还很有限。为填补这一部分的知识空白,我们以电话访谈的形式进行了调查,以达到以下六个目的:

  • To assess the disaster risk literacy among the Hong Kong population;
    评估香港人口的灾害风险素养;
  • To assess the perceived need for first-aid training;
    评估人们自觉的急救培训需求;
  • To assess the prevalence of first-aid training among the Hong Kong population;
    评估在香港人口推行急救培训的普遍性;
  • To explore the relationship between disaster risk literacy and first-aid training; and
    探讨灾害风险素养和急救培训的关系;以及
  • To characterize the first-aid training received;
    了解所接受的急救培训的特点;
  • To analyze the relationships between self-perceived disaster preparedness, first-aid training, and disaster risk literacy.
    分析自觉灾害防备,与急救培训和灾害风险素养的关系。

The survey will be conducted among the non-institutional Cantonese-speaking population in Hong Kong. The results will be used to inform policy makers and emergency response agencies as they develop policies and protocols for responding to natural disasters.

研究对象来自会讲广东话的在香港居住的香港人(但不包括现役军人,而且没有被关在监狱、限制在精神病院或其它监禁设施内的香港人)。有关结果将呈报给政策制定者和紧急救援机构,为制定应对自然灾害有效的政策和指引提供参考。

Project Duration 项目实施时间

2 Years (2012-2013)
两年 (2012-2013)

Funding 资金来源

This project is supported by the CCOUC seed grant.
此项目由CCOU 灾害与人道救援研究所种子基金慷概支持。